Beech, European (Fagus sylvatica)
Common names: Carpathian
beech, Common beech, Danish beech, English beech, European
beech, Fayard, French beech, Romanian beech, Rumanian beech,
Slavonian beech, Yugoslavian beech
European Beech and American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) are very similar to each other.
European Beech is consumed more than any other hardwood in the UK. It is considered to be among the best known and most useful commercial timbers in the world, and is always in demand. European beech is available in long lengths, wide boards, and in the form of veneers, and is in the same price class (approx. 1300-1600€/m3) as the lower cost hardwoods.
Could be a very good subsitute for European birch and African mahogany.
Exhibit an attractive flecked figure on quartered surfaces, and broad rays on longitudinal surfaces.
The bending strength qualities of this species in the air-dry condition is very high, far superior to those of mahogany. Compression strength parallel to grain in the air-dry condition is high. It is fairly hard, stiff, resisting wear, denting, and marring fairly well. It is a heavy wood with high density, a good choise for a fingerboard.
Birch, European (Betula sp.)
Common names: Birch, English birch, European birch, Finnish birch, Swedish birch, Common birch, Silver birch, Warty birch, White birch.
Birch is available in large quantities, but
the three leading commercially valuable birches, Yellow
birch (B. alleghaniensis), White birch (B.
papyrifera), and Sweet birch (B. lenta), are
often mixed and marketed together under the trade name
Birch. Price approx. 950€/m3.
Strength properties are comparable to those of European beech (Fagus). Seasoned Silver birch is similar to Ash (Fraxinus) in toughness.
Grain deviation, especially at base of boles, is reported to produce a variety of figures which are sometimes used as names for the wood. Thus, the wood is sometimes called Ice, Flame, etc., according to the figure displayed.
Another type of birch wood, Masur birch, is a genetic deviation that's has its own sub-species named Betula Pendula var. Carelica. Small brown pith flecks produce an attractive flecked and swirling figure which is highly prized for veneers for panelling and marquetry.
Fairly easy to work with and a good choice for neck wood because of its fairly high stiffness (except for B. papyrifera).
Cedar, spanish (Cedrela odorata)
Heartwood is a relatively uniform light pinkish to reddish brown. Colors tend to darken with age. Random pockets of gum and natural oils are commonly present.
Not a true cedar, Spanish Cedar is actually more closely related to true mahoganies (Swietenia and Khaya genera), as both are in the Meliaceae family. Density and mechanical properties can vary widely depending on country of origin and growing conditions; (specific gravity can vary from .30 to as high as .60 in some instances). Some of the wood available at present comes from plantations: where younger, faster-growing trees, produce wood that is lower in density, and paler in color than wood cut from trees taken from forests in the wild.
Spanish Cedar is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. However, due to its low density and softness, Spanish Cedar tends to leave fuzzy surfaces if not machined with sharp cutters; extra sanding up to finer grits may be required to obtain a smooth wood surface. Also, natural gum pockets can remain wet and may ooze out onto the surrounding surface, which can clog and gum up saw blades, and make finishing the wood a challenge.
Generally in adequate availability, Spanish Cedar is sometimes sold in thinner 1/4″ lumber for use in liners and other small craft projects, fairly common in flamenco and classical guitar building.
This wood species is in CITES Appendix III, and is on the IUCN Red List. It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
Hickory (Carya sp.)
Also known as: Bitternut, Bitternut hickory, Hickory, Pecan, Swamp hickory (among others)
Several species in the genus Carya,
including Shellbark (C. laciniosa ), Pignut (C.
glabra ), Mockernut (C. tomentosa ), and
Shagbark (C. ovata ) are often mixed together and
marketed under the trade name Hickory because of very close
similarities. Hickory is described as unique among temperate
hardwoods due its combination of high bending strength,
stiffness, hardness, and resistance to shock. It resists
suddenly applied loads exceptionally well, and is far
superior to Ash (Fraxinus) in that respect. The
densest and toughest hickory wood is produced by fast grown,
wide-ringed trees. Strength properties are slightly superior
to those of European beech (Fagus), but toughness
is considerably higher.
Density of such wood is considerably higher than that of Ash, especially in the seasoned condition ,and it retains shape well (a very stable shock-resistant wood).
Hornbeam, European (Carpinus betulus)
Also known as: Avenbok, Carpin, Carpy, Charme, European hornbeam, Haagbeuk, Hagbuche, Hagebuche, Hainbuche, Hardbeam, Hornbaum, Hornbeam, Pine, Quickbeam, Quickenbeam, Quicktree, Vitbok, Weissbuche, Yoke-elm.
Hornbeam is fairly hard, resisting wear,
denting, and marring fairly well. Weight is very high, and
it has high density (slightly harder than Ash) and
stiffness. Strength properties of European hornbeam are
comparable to those of European beech, and the timber is
considered a suitable alternative to Maple for light
American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), also known as Blue beech and Water beech is quite similar to European Hornbeam.
Hornbeam would be a very good choice for fingerboards, but is very rear and hard to come by.
Merbau (Intsia palembanica)
Common names: Aizella, Anglai, Borneo teak, Go nuoe, Hintsy, Ipil, Kwila, Lum-pho, Lumpha, Lumpho, Makhamong, Marbau, Merbau, Miraboo, Miraboo laut, Mirabow, Tat talun, Tat-talun, V'ula, Vesi.
An extremely heavy wood and may be difficult
to work with when quartersawn as most pieces have
interlocking grain. It also tends to dull blades and
cutters, color variation between boards is moderate to high.
The timber of Merbau is comparable in strength to that of
hickory (Carya), but it is less dense. The wood is
reported to glue well (except with casein glues) but
requires considerable filling. Oily surfaces may cause
difficulties. May not be the most stable wood to choose
from, but is very stiff and polishes well even without a
Merbau would probably be a good neck or fretboard wood.
Engelmann (Picea engelmanni), Sitka
(Picea sitchensis), Red
(Picea rubens), Black (Picea
mariana), White (Picea glauca),
European (Picea abies)
Wood produced by White, Red, Black, Sitka and Engelmann spruce are so similar in structural properties that they cannot be differentaited and are usually mixed and marketed together.
Spruce is the premium wood used for acoustic guitar tops. Spruce has one of the highest strength-to-weight ratios. Bending strength is medium, the wood is soft, and surfaces may dent easily. Weight is moderate (400kg/m3) , and density is average, or medium . Its natural resonance qualities make spruce an ideal choice for musical instrument soundboards.
Not known to be used for solid bodies, but could very well be worth a try.
Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum)
Common names: Aboudikro, Acajou sapelle, Assi, Assie sapelli, Atore, Bibitu, Botsife, Bubussu, Cedar, Dilolo, Gold Coast cedar, Kwabohoro, Liboyo, Libuyu, Lifaki, Lifari, Lifuti, Lotue, M'boyo, Miovu, Muyovu, Odupon, Oweru, Penkua, Penkwa, Sapele, Sapele mahogany, Sapele wood, Sapeli, Sapelli, Scented mahogany, Tshimaye noir, Ubilesan, Undianuno, West African cedar.
Quarter cut Sapele is reported to yield a
ribbon, regular stripe or bee's wing. Other cuts feature
various desirable patterns, including fiddlebacks, roe or a
mottled design, especially in wood containing wavy grain.
Sapele is readily available as either veneer or lumber, with
prices ranging from average to valuable. Specified grades of
Sapele are also easier to fill. Quartered sapele yields
beautiful straight stripes. Flat cut wood produces
attractive cathedrals and cantilevered hearts and Sapele
pommele, a wild blisterered grain pattern present in some
trees. Sapele pommele is a highly popular veneer, and is
used by designers for architectural interiors, table tops,
and wall paneling. The best grades of Sapele are reported to
feature a fine pencil stripe of uniform width.
Sapele is comparable to Oak in strength properties, and is stronger than either African (Khaya) or Honduras mahogany (Swietenia).
Could be a nice looking wood for bodies or tops.
Willow (Salix spp.)
Heartwood is tan to pinkish brown. The sapwood is yellowish white, and is not always clearly or sharply demarcated from heartwood. Willow has a straight grain with a fine to medium uniform texture.Historically, it’s been the wood of choice for cricket bats. Willow is a lightweight hardwood with good shock resistance, but overall is weak for its weight. Willow wood is very similar to alder and would be a good choice for any guitar/bass body.
Below a comparsion chart with the wood species mentioned above.
This information is gathered from various sources on the internet, so I just thought I should mention that with a little careful searching, it is possible to find mountains of information related to guitar building on the web. Much of this information will be found on the websites of luthiers both professional and amateur. Often these sites give insight into their building materials or techniques.
Careful use of the major search engines and the newsgroup related websites should provide you with a wealth of knowledge and guidance.
Below a short link-list from which information has been gathered: